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Narration : Assertive Sentence

Narration : Assertive Sentence

Study the following narration changes :

Direct : He said, “I do it”

Indirect : He said that he did it.

Direct : He said, “I am writing letters.”

Indirect : He said that he was writing letters.

Direct : He said, “I wrote letters.”

Indirect : He said that he had written letters.

Direct : He said, “I have passed the examination.”

Indirect : He said that he had passed the examination.

Direct : He said, “I had passed the examination.

Indirect : He said that he had passed the examination.

Direct : He said, “I was playing cricket.”

Indirect : He said that he had been playing cricket.

Direct : He said, “ I shall play cricket.”

Indirect : He said that he would play cricket.

Rule – 1 : If the Reporting Verb is in the present of future tense, the tense of the verb of the Direct Speech is not changed at all.

[যদি Reporting Verb -টি present বা future tense -এ থাকে, তাহলে Direct Speech কে Indirect করার সময় Verb -এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।]

Direct : The farmer says, “I am busy.”

Indirect : The farmer says that he is busy.

Direct : The farmer will say, “I am busy.”

Indirect : The farmer will say that he is busy.

Rule – 2 : If the statement is a habitual truth or eternal truth, no change of tense is required.

      [বক্তব্যটি যদি অভ্যাসগত বা চিরসত্য বোঝায়, তাহলে tense -এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।]

Direct : Bimal said, “I walk for an hour every morning.”

Indirect : Bimal said that he walks for an hour every morning.

Direct : The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”

Indirect : The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.

Rule – 3 : Some words of time expression and place expression are changed if the Reporting Verb is in the past tense.

      [Reporting Verb -টি past tense -এ থাকলে সময় বা স্থানবাচক কিছু শব্দের পরিবর্তন হয়।]

Direct NarrationIndirect NarrationDirect NarrationIndirect Narration
ThisThatTodayThat day
TheseThoseTonightThat night
HereThereTomorrowThe next day/ The following day
AgoBeforeYesterdayThe previous day/ The day before
ComeGoLast nightThe previous night
ThisSoLast monthThe previous month/ The month before
HitherThitherLast yearThe previous year/ The year before
HenceThenceNext weekThe following week
NowThenNext yearThe following year
Thus That wayThusSo
YetBy that time

Rule – 4 : Students often change it into that in the indirect. But that is wrong. It remains unchanged.

[ছাত্রছাত্রীরা প্রায়ই it -কে that -এ পরিণত করে। এটি ভুল। It indirect -এ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।]

Direct : The boy said, “I’ll do the work now.”

Indirect : The boy said that he would do the work then.

Direct : He said, “I am glad to be here this evening.”

Indirect : He said that he was glad to be there that evening.

Direct : He said, “ I shall go to Dhaka tomorrow.”

Indirect : He said that he would go to Dhaka the next day.

Direct : He said, “I have never seen anything like it.”

Indirect : He said that he had never seen anything like it.

Rule – 5 : Normally, there are no changes in the verb forms of the Modal auxiliaries like must, ought to  and should, though should often becomes would corresponding person of the subject and  had to is often used in place of must.

[সাধারণত must, ought to এবং এর মতো Modal Auxiliary গুলির কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না, যদিও কখনো কখনো must -এর জায়গায় had to বসে এবং should -এর জায়গায় subject -এর person পরিবর্তন অনুযায়ী would বসে।]

Direct : She said, “We ought to go.”

Indirect : She said that the ought to go.

Direct : She said, “We must go.”

Indirect : She said that they must go/had to go.

Direct : Mithila said to me, “I should be grateful if you help me.”

Indirect :  Mithila told me that she would be grateful to me if I helped him.

But should of obligation is not changed. [কিন্তু উচিত অর্থে should পরিবর্তন হয় না।]

Direct : Sumon said to him, “You should be more careful.”

Indirect : Sumon told him that he should be more careful.

Rule – 6 : In Indirect Speech, “said to him”, “said to me” etc. before that are not good English. Write  “told him”, “told me” etc. [Object না থাকলে ‘say’ এবং Object থাকলে ‘tell’ হয় Reporting Verb। Indirect Speech -এ that -এর পূর্বে said to him, said to me ইত্যাদি ভালো ইংরেজি নয়; এরূপ স্থলে told him, told me এরূপ লেখা উচিত।]

Reference : Nesfield, Wren & Martin : Applied English Grammar

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