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Transformation of Sentences Simple Complex Compound Rules

Transformation of Sentences :: Simple-Complex-Compound : Rules

At a glance

No.CompoundComplexSimple
1But/yet
Ex: He worked hard but he did not pass the exam.
Although/Though
Ex: Though he worked hard, he did not pass the exam.
In spite of/Despite + (possessive) Verb + ing
Ex: In spite of (his) working hard, he did not pass the exam.
2Or
Ex: Read attentively or fail.
Unless…./ If you do not যুক্ত (Negative), Sub + …..
Ex: (Unless you/If you do not) read attentively you will fail.
Without + Verb + ing
Ex: Without reading attentively you will fail.
3Verb ….. and
Ex: Take exercise and (you will) be healthy.
If you do যুক্ত (affirmative), Sub +…
Ex: If you take exercise, you will be healthy.
By + Verb + ing …..
Ex: By taking exercise, you will be healthy.
4Sub ….. and (Subject একই)
Ex: He was lazy and he could not prosper
When/ As/Since
Ex: As he was lazy, he could not prosper.
Verb + ing …..
Ex: Being lazy he could not prosper.


5
Sub ….. and (Subject আলাদা)
Ex: He woke up and it was raining.
Ex: The water was hot and I could not drink it.
When/ As/Since
Ex: When he woke up, it was raining.
Ex: As the water water was hot, I could not drink it.
At the time of + possessive + verb + ing …., Sub + …..
Ex: At the time of his waking up, it was raining.
অথবা Sub+ having/ being + ….. Sub + …..
Ex: The water being hot, I could not drink it.
6Very ….. and
Ex: The sum is very hard and I cannot solve it.
Ex: The sum was very easy and I could solve it.
So ….. that + Sub + can/ could + V1
Ex: The sum is so hard that I cannot solve it.
Ex: The sum was so easy that I can solve it.
Too/enough … to + V1 + …
Ex: The sum is too hard too hard for me to solve.
Ex: The sum was easy enough for me to solve.
7and he want/ wanted to (any tense)
Ex: The man ran fast and wanted to catch the train.
So that/in order that + can/ could + V1
Ex: The man run fast so that he could catch the train.
To/in order to + V1
Ex: The man run fast to catch the train.
8not only …. but also
Ex: She is not only a singer but also a dancer.
Ex: I gave him not only money but also good advice.
…… Who ….. as well
Ex: She who is a singer is a dancer as well.When ….
Ex: When I gave him money, I gave him advice.
Besides + Verb + ing
Ex: Besides being a singer, she is a dancer.
Ex: Besides giving him money, I gave him advice.
9And
Ex: The police arrived and the crowd disappeared.
Ex: He heard the news and he wrote me.
As soon as …. / No sooner had …. than/ Hardly …. when/Scarcely …. when
Ex: As soon as the police arrived, the crowd disappeared.
Ex: Hardly had he heard the news when he wrote to me.
At the time of + possessive + Verb + ing
Ex: At the time of the police’s arriving/arrival, the crowd disappeared.Verb + ing ….
Ex: Hearing the news he wrote to me.
10…. and ….
Ex: A have a brother and he reads at Chittagong University.
Noun + Relative Pronoun + Verb
Ex: I have a brother who reads at Chittagong University.
Noun + Relative Pronoun + Verb + ing
Ex: I have a brother who reading at Chittagong University.



11


…. and ….
Ex: I saw a man and he was was walking in the field.Ex: I want a shirt and it is black.


Noun + Relative Pronoun + be + adj/participle
Ex: I saw a man who was walking in the field.
Ex: I want a shirt which is black.


Noun +  Relative Pronoun + be + adj/participle phrase
Ex: I saw a man who was walking in the field.
Ex: I want a black shirt.
12It is/was + time … and
Ex: It was dawn and the man died.
When it is/was + time
Ex: When it was dawn, the man died.
At/in/on/ate the age of + time at (শুধু রাত, ঘড়ির সময়, উৎসব, বয়স এর ক্ষেত্রে); in (রাত ছাড়া দিনের অন্যান্য ভাগ, মাস, বছর); on (day যুক্ত সময়); বয়স থাকলেঃ at the age of
Ex: The man died at dawn.
13
Those + who + be + adjective
Ex: Those who are pious are happy.
Those + who + The + adjective + be
Ex: The pious are happy.
14…. and…. the reason/the time/the place/ the way
Ex: I was delayed and he asked me the reason.
Verb + why/when/where/how + sub
Ex: He asked me why I was delayed.
Verb + the reason for/the time of/the place of/the way of +
Ex: He asked me the reason for my being delayed.

বেশি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ নিয়মসমূহ : 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12

Rule-1: But যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Though বা Although দ্বারা Complex এবং Inspite of ও Despite দ্বারা Simple Sentence এ রূপান্তর করা হয়। Simple করার সময় Adjective কে Noun -এ রূপান্তর করা যায়।

Example :

1. Compound: He is poor but he is honest.

   Complex: Though he is poor, he is honest.

   Simple: In spite of (his) being poor, he is honest

   Or, In spite of (his) poverty, he is honest.


2. Compound: He was terribly unhappy but he did not blame anybody.

   Complex: Although he was terribly unhappy he did not blame anybody.

   Simple: In spite of (his) being terribly unhappy, he did not blame anybody.

   Or, In spite of (his) terrible unhappiness, he did not blame anybody.


3. Compound: The old man has seven children but he lives alone.

    Complex: Though the old man has seven children, he lives alone.

    Simple: In spite of having seven children, the old man lives alone.

Instant Practice :

  1. Although the man has vast riches, he wants more.
  2. In spite of being healthy, he is lazy.
  3. Though she is black, she is beautiful.
  4. He ran fast but he could not catch the train.
  5. Though the man looks cruel, he is kind.
  6. He was sincere but could not succeed.
  7. Though Karim was tired, he went to walk.
  8. He is weak but he can speak loudly.
  9. In spite of intelligence, the girl could not shine in life.
  10. I called him but he did not respond.
  11. Though he is healthy, he does not work at all.
  12. In spite of his working hard, he could not reach his goal.

Rule-2: Or যুক্ত Compound Sentence (Imperative Sentence) কে Unless you/If you do not…. যুক্ত  (negative), Sub +…. দ্বারা Complex এবং Without (you) + Verb + ing…, Sub +… দ্বারা Simple Sentence এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: Study hard or fail.

   Complex: If you do not study hard, you will fail.

   Or, Unless you study hard, you will fail.

   Simple: Without studying hard, you will fail.


2. Compound: Leave this room or I will compel you to do so.

   Complex: If you do not leave this room, I will compel you to do so.

   Or, Unless you leave this room, I will compel you to do so.

   Simple: Without you leaving this room, I will compel you to do so.


3. Compound:Do as I suggest you or you will suffer.

   Complex: If you do not do as I suggest you, you will suffer.

   Or,   Unless you do as I suggest you, you will suffer.

   Simple: Without doing as I suggest you, you will suffer.

Instant Practice :

  1. If you do not work hard, you will not succeed.
  2. Without eating a balanced diet, you cannot live well.
  3. Have a visa or you cannot go abroad.
  4. Unless he reads attentively, he will not do well in the exam.
  5. Without being punctual, you cannot prosper in life.
  6. Read attentively or you cannot pass the exam.
  7. Without walking fast you will be late.
  8. If you do not write much, you cannot write well.
  9. Walk fast or you cannot catch the train.
  10. Unless you leave the place at once, you will be punished.

Rule-3: Verb ….. and যুক্ত Compound Sentence (Imperative Sentence) কে If you যুক্ত (affirmative), Sub +… দ্বারা Complex এবং By + Verb + ing দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: Follow my example and you will feel better.

   Complex: If you follow my example, you will feel better.

   Simple: By following my examples, you will feel better.


2. Compound: Do it and you will be punished.

   Complex: If you do it, you will be punished.

   Simple: By doing it, you will be punished.

Instant Practice :

  1. If you practice regularly, you can play well.
  2. By taking medicine you will be cured.
  3. Drink milk and you can get vitamins.
  4. If you work hard, you will be succeeded in life.
  5. Read newspaper and you can know about many things.
  6. By reading attentively, you can make a good result.
  7. Be honest and you will be happy.
  8. If you read, you will learn.
  9. Take regular exercise and you can be healthy.

Rule-4: Subject একই এবং And দ্বারা যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex এবং Verb + ing …., Sub + …. দ্বারা Simple এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: We went to his office and we found him absent.

   Complex: When we went to his office, we found him absent.

   Simple: Going to his office, we found him absent.


2. Compound: The thief saw the police and he ran away.

   Complex: As the thief saw the police, he ran away.

   Simple: Seeing the police, the thief ran away.


3. Compound: The students saw the headmaster and they entered the class.

   Complex: Since the students saw the headmaster, they entered the class.

   Simple: Seeing the headmaster, the students entered the class.

Instant Practice :

  1. As he was lazy, he could not prosper.
  2. Being tired, he refused to go.
  3. He received your letter and he was glad.
  4. Going home I found my mother asleep.
  5. He went home when he completed his work.
  6. As I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.
  7. Since the water was dirty, I could not drink it.
  8. She had heard the news and she cried out in sorrow.
  9. Having done the work, he went away.
  10. When he had seen a horrible sight, he got frightened.
  11. I went there and I heard him talking.
  12. As I closed the door, I went out for a walk.
  13. Hearing a noise, he woke up.
  14. I forgot him and went out.

Rule-5: Subject আলাদা এবং And দ্বারা যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex এবং At the time of + possessive + verb + ing …., Sub + ….. অথবা Sub+ having/ being + ….. Sub + ….. দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: He woke up and it was raining.

   Complex: When he woke up, it was raining.

   Simple: At the time of his waking up, it was raining.


2. Compound: The marriage ceremony was over and the guests were all going to the feast.

   Complex: When the marriage ceremony was over, the guests were all going to the feast.

   Simple: The marriage ceremony being over, the guests were all going to the feast.


3. Compound: The sun had set and we went home.

   Complex: As the sun had set, we went home.

   Simple: The sun having set, we went home.

Instant Practice :

  1. The game was over and the spectators went home.
  2. The sum being hard, I couldn’t solve it.
  3. Since the weather was very bad, we didn’t go home.
  4. The sun having set, we stopped our playing.
  5. As the day was stormy, many people couldn’t return home.
  6. The water being hot, I could not drink it.
  7. When the lunch was over, the lady went away.
  8. Being the water salty, the sailors cannot drink it.
  9. I had showed a true love for all living things and I was saved.
  10. I was admitted to school when I was five.
  11. My mutton chop arrived and she took me to task.

Rule-6: Very …. and যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে so ….. that + Sub + any tense …. দ্বারা Complex এবং too/enough …. to + V1 ….. দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Note: Sentence টি Negative হলে Simple -এর ক্ষেত্রে ‘too’ ব্যবহৃত হবে এবং Affirmative হলে, ‘enough’ ব্যবহৃত হবে।

Example :

1. Compound: He is very honest and he will not accept bribe.

   Complex: He is so honest that he will not accept bribe.

   Simple: He is too honest to accept bribe.


2. Compound: The news is very good and it can not be true.

   Complex: The news is so good that it can not be true.

   Simple: The news is too good to be true.


3. Compound: She was very intelligent and she got first class.

   Complex: She was so intelligent that she got first class.

   Simple: She was enough intelligent to get first class.

Instant Practice :

  1. Javed was so exhausted that he was lying down for a sleep.
  2. He is too weak to walk.
  3. The boy is very intelligent and he can understand his lesson.
  4. The girl was so dull that she could not do the sum.
  5. The boy was very foolish and he could not understand a simple matter.
  6. They were so nice that they can not be used just as present.
  7. I was too young to have learnt to say “no” to a woman.
  8. She was my very intimate friend and I can’t forget her.
  9. Mina was so lazy that she could not succeed in life.
  10. The water was so dirty that we could not drink it.

Rule-7: And + Sub + desire to/ desired to/ want to/ wanted to….. যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে so that + sub + can/could + V1 যুক্ত করে Complex এবং to/ in order to + V1 …./ for + Verb + ing দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: He studied hard and wanted to pass.

   Complex: He studied hard so that he could pass.

   Simple: He studied hard to pass.


2. Compound: The officer left the job and he wanted to avoid punishment.

   Complex: The officer left the job so that he could avoid punishment.

   Simple: The officer left the job to avoid punishment.


3. Compound: He goes there and desires to buy a pen.

   Complex: He goes there so that he can buy a pen.

   Simple: He goes there in order to buy a pen.

Instant Practice :

  1. He works hard in order to pass the exam.
  2. She went to market so that she could buy a Sari.
  3. The man ran fast and wanted to catch the train.
  4. He works hard to prosper in life.
  5. We eat so that we may live well.
  6. I went there to see my friend.
  7. I read more and I wanted to make a good result.
  8. The lady wrote letters to the writes so that she might a have a lunch from him.
  9. Ambia sold her hair to buy a gift for Akkas.
  10. The authoress wanted quiet isolation so that she could do some troublesome writing.

Rule-8: Not only…… but also যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Besides + Verb + ing …., Sub + Verb + …. যুক্ত করে Simple Sentence এবং When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: I gave him not only money but also good advice.

   Simple: Besides giving him money, I gave him good advice.

   Complex: When I gave him money, I gave him good advice.


2. Compound: He not only robbed the passenger but also murdered him.

   Simple: Besides robbing the passenger, he murdered him.

   Complex: When he robbed the passenger, he murdered him.


3. Compound: He ate not only a mango but also an apple.

   Simple: Besides eating a mango he ate an apple.

   Complex: When he ate a mango, he ate an apple.

Rule-9: As soon as…../No sooner had…. than/Hardly…. when/Scarcely….. when যুক্ত Complex Sentence কে and দ্বারা Compound এবং Verb + ing…../At the time of + possessive + (Verb + ing)/Noun …. দ্বারা Simple Sentence এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Complex: As soon as the police arrived, the crowd disappeared.

   Compound: The police arrived and the crowd disappeared.

   Simple: At the time of the police’s arriving/arrival, the crowd disappeared.


2. Complex: Hardly had he heard the news when he wrote to me.

   Compound: He heard the news and he wrote me.

   Simple: Hearing the news he wrote to me.


3. Complex: No sooner had we reached the stadium than the game began.

   Compound: We reached the stadium and the game began.

   Simple: At the time of our reaching the stadium, the game began.

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